PYTHON HAS NO ATTRIBUTE ERROR

Attributes are worths or features linked via a things, a documents kind, or a class. If you speak to an attribute on a worth whose data form or course does not support that attribute, you’ll enrespond to an AttributeError.

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This guide discusses what an AttributeError is and also what it means. We’ll walk via an example of an AttributeError so you can learn how to fix one in your code.

What is a Python AttributeError?

A Python AttributeError is raised once you attempt to call an attribute of a things whose type does not assistance that technique. For circumstances, trying to usage the Python append() method on a string retransforms an AttributeError bereason strings execute not assistance append().

In a Python class, you deserve to define approaches and values that are mutual by the objects of that course. This is why some human being think of classes as blueprints for objects.


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Calling an approach or a class is an additional way of saying you are referencing an attribute of that course. One method to think about an attribute is like a physical attribute of a person. Some human being have blue eyes. Some people have pink-dyed hair. These are all features.

In a Python course, an attribute might be “eye_color”. This attribute can specify the color of a person’s eyes. An attribute can also be a function. A feature dubbed changeEyeColor() can adjust the worth of “eye_color”.

Data varieties have actually characteristics. For instance, you can use the Python join() technique to transform a string right into a list. String objects assistance the join() approach.

If you attempt to recommendation a function or a worth not connected via a course object or a file type, you’ll enrespond to an AttributeError.


» MORE: Python isinstance: A Step-By-Tip Guide

Attribute Error Python Example

Let’s write a program that merges two lists of shoes. Two shoe stores are going through a merger and also desire to make a list of all the unique shoes they market.

To begin, let’s specify a Python set that has the shoes from keep one, Harrisons Shoes:


harrisons_shoes = "Nike Air Force 1 07", "Nike Air Max Plus", "Adidas Gazelle"
We usage curly braces to specify our collection. Next off, let’s specify a set with the names of the shoes offered by the keep that is merging via Harrisons. This shoe save is referred to as the Shoe Emporium:


shoe_emporium = "Adidas Samba", "Adidas Superstar", "Nike Air Max Plus"
Due to the fact that these two collections are sets, they have the right to just keep distinctive values. That suggests once we add them together, we’ll acquire a set with no duplicate worths.

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To add our sets together, we’re going to use the built-in attribute called extend():


harrisons_shoes.extend(shoe_emporium)print(harrisons_shoes)
The extend() approach adds all the shoes from the “shoe_emporium” set to the “harrisons_shoes” set. We use a Python print() statement. This lets us we have the right to check out all the shoes in our brand-new collection. Let’s run our code and also view what happens:


Traceback (most recent call last): Documents "main.py", line 3, in harrisons_shoes.extend(shoe_emporium)AttributeError: "set" object has actually no attribute "extend"
Our code retransforms an AttributeError.

AttributeError Python Solution

Our error message tells us we cannot usage the approach extend() on an object whose data kind is a set. This is bereason extend() is a list method. It is not supported by sets.

If we want to merge our 2 sets, we need to usage an enhancement sign:


harrisons_shoes.update(shoe_emporium)print(harrisons_shoes)
This will add the contents of the “shoe_emporium” collection to the “harrisons_shoes” set. We then print all the worths in the “harrisons_shoes” collection to the console. Let’s run our brand-new program:


"Nike Air Force 1 07", "Adidas Superstar", "Adidas Samba", "Nike Air Max Plus", "Adidas Gazelle"
Our routine retransforms a collection with all the shoes from our two original sets. While there were 6 values in our original 2 sets, currently tbelow are only 5. This is because two of the shoes were the exact same and also sets have the right to just store distinct worths.


» MORE: Python Queue and Deque: A Step-By-Tip Guide

Our program returns a set through all the shoes from our two original sets. While tbelow were six values in our original 2 sets, now tbelow are only five. This is bereason two of the shoes were the same and also sets have the right to just store distinct worths.

Comparable AttributeErrors to Explore

AttributeErrors are very widespread. They have the right to aclimb when you try to contact features of data varieties and classes that perform not support the attribute you are referring to.

These errors might also be resulted in if you make a typo once referring to an attribute. Python will certainly interpret your code as-is. If you make a typo, it will certainly show up to Python that you are referring to an attribute that does not exist.

For instance, utilizing the Python split() approach to separation a list is widespread. But, split() is a string technique and so it cannot be used to split a list.

For additionally reading, think about rebrowsing the following errors:

Conclusion

Attribute errors in Python are elevated as soon as an invalid attribute is referenced. To solve these errors, initially examine that the attribute you are calling exists. Then, make sure the attribute is regarded the object or data kind with which you are functioning.

If the attribute you want is linked through a built-in type and also does not exist, you must look for an different. Tbelow are alternatives for many characteristics that exist for one data kind you deserve to use on an additional data type. For circumstances, there is no extend() approach with sets yet you deserve to usage union() to join to sets.


» MORE: Enumerate Python: Step-by-Step Guide

To learn more about creating Python code, review our How to Find Out Python guide.