Drawing Figures In Latex

This five-component series of posts offers a combination of video and also textual descriptions to teach the basics of producing LaTeX graphics making use of TikZ. These tutorials were initially publimelted on the original ShareLateX blog site during August 2013; in turn, today"s editor interface (sibbap.org) has actually adjusted substantially as a result of the development of ShareLaTeX and also the subsequent merger of ShareLaTeX and sibbap.org. However before, a lot of the content is still relevant and also teaches you some basic LaTeX—abilities and specialization that will certainly use across all platdevelops.

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TikZ is a LaTeX package that enables you to produce high top quality diagrams—and also often fairly facility ones also. In this initially write-up we"ll begin with the basics, showing how to draw simple shapes, through subsequent articles introducing some of the interesting points you have the right to do utilizing the tikz package.

To gain began with TikZ we should load up the tikz package:

Now whenever we want to create a TikZ diagram we need to use the tikzphoto environment.


Basic shapes

One of the most basic and also the majority of typically used regulates in TikZ is the attract command also. To attract a directly line we use this command also, then we enter a starting co-ordinate, adhered to by two dashes before the finishing co-ordinate. We then end up the statement by closing it via a semicolon.

draw (0,0) -- (4,0);


We have the right to then include more co-ordinates in choose this to make it a square:

draw (0,0) -- (4,0) -- (4,4) -- (0,4) -- (0,0);


However this isn"t particularly great style. As we are illustration a line that ends up in the exact same place we began, it is much better to end up the statement via the keyword cycle rather than the last co-ordinate.

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attract (0,0) -- (4,0) -- (4,4) -- (0,4) -- cycle;
To simplify this code even more we have the right to usage the rectangle keyword after the starting co-ordinate and then follow it through the co-ordinate of the corner diagonally oppowebsite.

attract (0,0) rectangle (4,4);
We deserve to also include lines that aren"t straight. For example, this is exactly how we draw a parabola:

attract (0,0) parabola (4,4);


To include a curved line we usage regulate points. We start through our founding co-ordinate, then usage two dots complied with by the keyword controls and then the co-ordinates of our manage points separated by an and. Then after two even more dots we have actually the last allude. These manage points act like magnets attracting the line in their direction:

draw (0,0) .. controls (0,4) and also (4,0) .. (4,4);


We deserve to then add a circle choose this. The initially co-ordinate is the circle"s centre and also the length in brackets at the finish is the circle"s radius:

draw (2,2) circle (3cm);


This is how we attract an ellipse. This time the lengths in the brackets separated by an and, are the x-direction radius and the y-direction radius respectively:

attract (2,2) ellipse (3cm and also 1cm);


This is how we attract an arc. In the final bracket we enter the beginning angle, the ending angle and the radius. This time they are separated by colons:

attract (3,0) arc (0:75:3cm);


To customise the means these lines are drawn we add extra arguments right into the draw command also. For example, we can modify the circle we drew so that the line is red, thick and also dashed:

draw (2,2) circle (3cm);



Very regularly when drawing diagrams we will certainly desire to draw a grid. To execute this we use the attract command adhered to by by some added debates. For example, we specify the grid action size making use of step= and also a length. We"ve additionally specified the colour gray and also told it to make the lines exceptionally thin. After these disagreements we enter the co-ordinates of the bottom-left corner, followed by the keyword grid and also then the co-ordinates of the peak right-corner:

draw (-2,-2) grid (6,6);


If we want to rerelocate the outer lines approximately this grid we can crop the dimension slightly prefer this:

draw (-1.9,-1.9) grid (5.9,5.9);


Colour filling

Now allows add a form onto our grid and colour it in. To execute this we usage the fill command instead of the attract command also. Then in square brackets we enter a colour. For example, this states a colour that is 40% blue combined via 60% white. Then we just specify a closed form as we would normally:

fill (0,0) rectangle (4,4);


If we wanted to add a border around this shape we could readjust it to the filldraw command and also then change the debates so that we have actually both a fill colour and also a attract colour specified:

filldraw (0,0) rectangle (4,4);


If instead of one solid colour we want a colour gradient, we could change it to the shade command. Then in the square brackets we specify a left colour and a ideal colour:

shade (0,0) rectangle (4,4);


Instead of doing it from left to appropriate we can do it from optimal to bottom:

shade (0,0) rectangle (4,4);


Or we could also change it by specifying an inner and also outer colour choose this:

shade (0,0) rectangle (4,4);


Finally we can also add a border to this by making use of the shadedraw command also and also adding a draw colour:

shadedraw (0,0) rectangle (4,4);



Let"s complete this post by including some labeled axes to our grid. To perform this we attract 2 normal lines both from (0,0), however we"ll make them thick and also add arrowheads utilizing a dash and a pointed bracket:

draw> (0,0) -- (4.5,0);draw> (0,0) -- (0,4.5);


We have the right to likewise label our axes using nodes. To execute this we include the keyword node right into both draw statements next to the end co-ordinates, followed by an anchor specification in square brackets and the message in curly brackets. Eextremely node we develop in TikZ has actually a variety of anchors. So once we specify the north west anchor for the x-axis node, we are telling TikZ to usage the anchor in the top-left-hand edge to anchor the node to the co-ordinate:

draw> (0,0) -- (4.5,0) node x axis;draw> (0,0) -- (0,4.5) node y axis;


To end up our axes we can add in ticks and also numbering like this:

foreach x in 0,1,2,3,4 attract (x cm,1pt) -- (x cm,-1pt) node $x$;foreach y in 0,1,2,3,4 attract (1pt,y cm) -- (-1pt,y cm) node $y$;


This clever before item of code supplies two for each loops to systematically go along the axes adding the ticks and numbers. In each one, the variable x or y takes on every one of the numbers in the curly brackets, each subsequently and also executes the attract command.

This concludes our discussion on basic illustration in TikZ. If you want to play approximately through the record we created in this post you deserve to access it right here. In the following short article we"ll look exporting TikZ code from GeoGebra.

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